Other views of this artifact:

Accession Number:
[Southern Sudan]
Cultural Group:
?Dinka ?Shilluk ?Jur
Date Made:
?Before 1865
Iron Metal
L = 99 mm, W = 90.5 mm, Diam rod = 7.5 mm [RTS 22/3/2004].
85.2 g
Other Owners:
Collected in Sudan by John Petherick, sometime between 1853 and 1859, or 1861 to 1865. Subsequently acquired by Pitt Rivers by 1868, perhaps via auction as Petherick is known to have auctioned some of his collection through Mr Bullock of High Holborn, Lon
Field Collector:
John Petherick
PRM Source:
Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers founding collection
Donated 1884
Collected Date:
1853 - 1859 or 1861 - 1865
Narrow iron anklet, formed from a rod, round in section, that tapers slightly to each end. This has been bent into an oval loop, with the ends open but almost touching, some 3 mm apart; the ends have been cut flat. There are several fine oblique tool marks across the surface, possibly indicating use of a file; the surface has been polished. Complete, and intact, with the metal in good condition, currently a silver gray colour (Pantone 421C). Length across anklet 99 mm, width across anklet 90.5 mm, maximum diameter of rod 7.5 mm, and weight 85.2 grams.

Collected by John Petherick in the Southern Sudan; Petherick was based in Khartoum between 1853 and March 1859, during which period he mounted five trading expeditions into Southern Sudan, and encountered several groups of Shilluk, Dinka, Raik Dinka, and 'Djour'. His collections from this time were shipped back to London in 1859. Petherick then returned to Khartoum in 1861, and travelled south via the Bahr el Abiad, Bahr el Jebel and then overland to Gondokoro, passing through further likely Dinka (the 'Kytch' = Cic Dinka?) and Jur territories. Any material obtained at this time would have returned to England with Petherick in 1865. It was later acquired by Pitt Rivers, perhaps via auction. Petherick is known to have auctioned some of his collection through Mr Bullock of High Holborn, London, on 27th June 1862 (see the
Catalogue of the very interesting collection of arms and implements of war, husbandry, and the chase, and articles of costume and domestic use, procured during several expeditions up the White Nile, Bahr-il-Gazal, and among the various tribes of the country, to the cannibal Neam Nam territory on the Equator, by John Petherick, Esq., H.M. Consul, Khartoum, Soudan ); he also had a second auction at a later date. Pitt Rivers sent this object to Bethnal Green Museum for display, as part of the first batch of objects sent there, probably in 1874. This object was later displayed in the South Kensington Museum, and transferred from there to become part of the founding collection of the Pitt Rivers Museum in 1884.

A similar type of object, but described as a Djibba woman's bracelet, was published by Wood (J.G. Wood, 1868,
The Natural History of Man Volume I, pp. 521-2). The object illustrated formed part of Wood’s own collection.

Rachael Sparks 30/9/2005.

Primary Documentation:
Accession Book V entry [p. 1] - [insert] 1884.82 [end insert] PERSONAL ORNAMENTS (contd from Vol. IV) METAL BANGLES, BRACELETS, ANKLETS [insert] 25-28 [end insert] - [1 of] 4 Penannular iron anklets: DINKA, SHILLUK, + JUR. Petherick coll. (106) (1619 black).
Collectors Miscellaneous XI Accession Book entry [p. 193] - PETHERICK, Consul [p. 195] [insert] 1884.82.25-28 [end insert]. 4 penannular iron bangles. SHILLUK, DINKA, JUR. (P.R. 106/ 1619).
Black book entry [p. 67] - 1619. Bracelets (12), iron. Dinka & Schillook tribes, C. Africa. One a warrior's sharp edged iron bracelet. Djibba tribe, Africa [see 1884.82.23]. p. 110. [insert] 1884.78.93, 94, 95; 1884.82.23-28, 34 + 1884.82.43, 44 [end insert]. [Note that 1884.82.28 is actually PR 104 and does not belong to this group, while there is an additional object not listed here that should be added (to be accessioned), RTS 2/4/2004].
Added Black book entry [p. 67a] - Iron and bronze penannular knob ended bracelets Indian in form are found in Africa having been made and introduced for trade purposes by Birmingham firms.
Delivery Catalogue II entry [p. 300] - Personal Ornaments of various Nations [p. 306] [insert] 1884,78.93-95, 82.23-29, 34, 43-4 [end insert] 12 iron bracelets (Central Africa), 1619, Case 74, 345. [Note that while 12 bracelets are described, cross references are given to 13 objects. Of these, 1884.78.28 is marked with PR reference 104, and 1884.78.29 is PR 95/8386, meaning both should be omitted from the group, while there is an additional object marked with PR 106/1619 that should be added to it (this still needs to be accessioned). This makes a total of 12 items actually belonging to this group; RTS 2/4/2004].
Card Catalogue Entry - There is no further information on the catalogue card [RTS 9/3/2004].
Old Pitt Rivers Museum label -
4 penannular iron anklets. DINKA, JUR, SHILLUK. Petherick coll. P.R. coll (1619)(106) [small jewellers tag, stored in RDF and associated with 1884.82.25-28; RTS 19/5/2005]
New Pitt Rivers Museum label - AFRICA, SUDAN Dinka, Shilluk or Jur Iron Anklet Collected by J. Petherick Pitt Rivers Founding collection 1884.82.26 [LM 'DCF 2004-2006 What's Upstairs?' 12/10/2005]
Written on object - CENTRAL AFRICA, PETHERICK, 106 1619 (worn ink; RTS 22/3/2004].

Display History:
Displayed in the Bethnal Green and South Kensington Museums (V&A) [AP].

Funded by Arts and Humanities Research Council
Help | About | Bibliography